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阅读 10413 次 历史版本 1个 创建者:dd (2012/8/31 14:55:17)  最新编辑:寂寞如歌 (2018/3/1 9:34:12)
禹碑
拼音:yǔ bēi (yu bei)
同义词条:《岣嵝碑》,岣嵝碑,禹王碑,神禹铭,岣嵝铭
禹碑
禹碑
   禹碑,又称岣嵝碑、禹王碑。原在湖南省衡山县,现置绍兴禹庙。相传为大禹治水时所立,因史料记载母碑位于衡阳岣嵝,又名岣嵝碑。碑文分9行共77个字,文字如蝌蚪,既不同于甲骨和钟鼎文,也不同于籀文蝌蚪,文字奇诡,文字有走样甚至出现笔误,但确是有所根据,并非向壁虚造,为春秋战国时刻石。而碑文的具体内容一直被古文字学家争议考证了几百年。有学者认为这是大禹治水的记功碑,但也有学者通过研究认为是一篇登高祭山之辞。
 
  《岣嵝碑》和仓颉书夜郎天书仙居蝌蚪文东巴文字等同等地位,被认为是中国现已发现的八种神秘、有待破解的原始文字或符号,被喻为古文字研究中的哥德巴赫猜想

由来传说

 
  自古传说,大禹治水之初,在南岳衡山曾得到当年黄帝南巡时留下的《金简玉书》。遵照书中要旨,历尽艰辛十三载,“三过家门而不入”,终于“随山导水功成”。于是,大禹在衡山云密峰,将治水过程中对近臣的说教、慰勉,并祭天的祷词,刻石以铭记。这就是流传千古的“禹王碑”。晋代文人罗含所著《湘中记》内,即有关于“神禹碑”的记述。

原碑与拓本

相关事件

禹碑
禹碑
  岣嵝碑源于湖南衡山的主峰岣嵝山。相传黄帝南巡衡山时曾留下“玉牒”,夏禹依其指点,制服了洪水,大功告成后,将“玉牒”送回岣嵝山,立下此碑,故被称为“禹碑”,即记载大禹治水的功绩。晋罗含《湘中记》说:“岣嵝山有玉牒,禹按之以治水。上有神禹碑。”《史记·夏本纪》说过夏禹治水曾经到衡山,但是否有神禹碑,却无佐证。

  唐永贞元年(805年),大文豪韩愈由粤北上,路过衡山,登临游览,遍寻神禹碑,踏破铁鞋无觅处,失望之余,写了七言古诗一首《岣嵝山》。刘禹锡《寄吕衡州》诗也说:“传闻祝融峰,上有《神禹铭》。古石琅千姿,秘文龙虎形。”仅仅是闻传而已。宋大理学家朱熹也曾到岣嵝山寻访岣嵝碑,终无所获,因此在《韩文考异》说:韩愈所谓“岣嵝山尖神禹碑”乃“传闻之误”。南宋王象之《与地纪胜》说:“禹碑在岣嵝峰,又传在衡山县密云峰”,连碑址在何也不敢肯定了。

  传说南宋嘉定五年(1212年),文人何致,曾在衡山山间看到了禹碑,临摹下来。后来原碑毁坏,便翻刻在岳麓书院。以后,岣嵝碑的拓本便在河南、四川、浙江、山东等省传开了。
 
  民国四年版《辞源》对“岣嵝碑”条注解时,先肯定“夏禹治水时所书,石刻之最古者,亦称‘禹碑’,在衡山县云密峰,凡七十七字”,而接下来的后一句则是“近人疑为明杨慎伪造”。
禹碑原碑遗址。1995年,村民王大成在此建起了房子。碑位于房子后方厨房左侧,被砌入墙体内,加之碑刻巨石高大,上部被打掉,用作从屋后上楼的石梯。)
禹碑原碑遗址。1995年,村民王大成在此建起了房子。碑位于房子后方厨房左侧,被砌入墙体内,加之碑刻巨石高大,上部被打掉,用作从屋后上楼的石梯。)
 
  1958年长沙文献机构曾将《禹碑》拓片寄往位于北京的中国科学院,请教于古文字学家郭沫若。但其复函只有“秘不可究”4个字。

文字记载

  关于衡山《禹碑》最早的文字记载,见于西晋和南北朝时代。晋罗含《湘中记》:“岣嵝山有玉牒,禹按其文以治水,上有禹碑。”南朝宋徐灵期《南岳记》:“云密峰有禹治水碑,皆蝌蚪文字。”“夏禹导山通渎,刻石名山之巅。”二者所记地点不一,一说在岣嵝峰(即祝融峰),一说在云密峰。其后,许多文人墨客所述地点岐异。至南宋嘉定、绍定(1208-1233)年间,张世南《游宦纪闻》载:何贤良(名致,字子一)于嘉定五年(1212)游南岳,至祝融峰下,遇一樵夫说见过一石碑,有数十字,何推测是“禹碑”,于是请樵夫作前导,“过隐真屏,复渡一二小涧,攀萝扪葛”,找到石碑。他当即用纸拓摹。过长沙时,乃摹刻于岳麓书院后山巨石之上。又据《舆地纪胜》载,何贤良所拓《禹碑》“摹刻于岳麓书院,皆蝌蚪文字,凡七十七字。”
 
  唐宋以前南岳衡山是否有禹碑,或果真有大禹亲自题写的“真迹”碑,现在已无法考证,成为千古之谜,当然也不能完全否定。而南宋何贤良所拓摹的《禹碑》,应该是真实的,非其伪造。由何贤良摹刻的《禹碑》至今屹立于岳麓山上,习称《禹王碑》,与史载相符,碑文共七十七字,形似蝌蚪,与篆文相去甚远,但与商周甲骨文和金文比较接近,应属商周或商周以前的文字。其所拓摹的《禹碑》原物,已不复存于祝融峰腰。

内容解读

 
  早在明代就开始了岣嵝碑文字破解,明朝人杨慎沈镒郎瑛、杨时乔(杨廷相)四家的解释,都认为碑文与大禹治水有关,其中以杨慎的解释影响最大。由于各家解释都没有确立相应规则,也没有提出释文的充分理由,甚至在难以解释得通的情况下,提出由做梦而来,因此令人难以信服。
 
  近现代学者郭沫若钻研了3年时间,也只认识碑文中的3个字。不过,这被破译的3个蝌蚪文是否准确,一直缺乏有力的证据。

  当代有曹锦炎、刘志一两家的解释,前者认为是战国时代越国太子代表其父越王上南岳祭拜的颂词,后者认为是歌颂楚庄王灭庸国,碑立于2673年前。这两家解释都推翻了传统观点,成为一家之言,但也没有最终定论,也没有人来下最终定论。

释文(杨慎)

杨慎释词
杨慎释词
 
  自明嘉靖以来,诸家对岳麓山《禹王碑》的碑文多有释文,大部分字的译释是相同的,但其中有10余字,常常相左,文意出入也很大。现将最早的明嘉靖年间杨慎的释文抄录如下:

  承帝曰咨:翼辅佐卿,洲渚与登,鸟兽之门。参身洪流,
  而明发尔兴。久旅忘家,宿岳麓庭。智营形折,心罔弗长。
  往求平定,华岳泰衡。宗疏事裒,劳余神   ,郁塞昏徙,
  南渎衍亨。衣制食备,万国其宁。窜舞永奔!
 

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