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阅读 2579 次 历史版本 0个 创建者:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/13 11:14:50)  最新编辑:zc_zhouchao (2018/3/13 11:14:50)
商壳

中药名

商壳 shangqiao

别名

炒枳实、只壳、枳实。

英文名

Fructus Aurantii。

来源

芸香科植物酸橙Citrus aurantium L.接近成熟的果实。

植物形态

常绿小乔木,分枝多。枝具棱和短刺。单身复叶,互生;叶片宽椭圆形或宽卵形,长7~12cm,宽4~7cm,先端窄而锐或急尖,基部圆形或宽楔形;叶柄翅倒卵形,宽1~1.5cm,有时较窄或宽,叶柄短。花白色,单生或2~3朵簇生于叶腋。萼杯状,5浅裂。花瓣5,长圆形,具芳香,有脉纹。雄蕊约25.花丝基部结合。果近球形,直径5~8cm,橙黄色,果皮粗糙。瓤囊10~12瓣,果肉酸带苦味。种子约20.,卵形。子味乳白色,单胚。花期5~7月,果期11~12月。

产地分布

多栽培于丘陵、低山地带。分布于我国长江流域地区,主产于江西、湖南、四川。

采收加工

7月果皮尚绿时采收,自中部横切为两半,晒干或者低温干燥。

药材性状

半球形,直径3~5厘米。外果皮褐色,有颗粒状突起,有明显的花柱残基或果梗痕。切面中果皮黄白色,边缘1~2列油室。质坚硬,不易折断。瓤囊7~12瓣,内藏种子。气清香,味苦、微酸。

性味归经

性温,味苦、辛、酸。归脾经、胃经。

功效与作用

理气宽中、行滞消胀。属理气药。

临床应用

用量3~9克,煎汤内服;或入丸、散。外用:适量,煎水洗或炒热熨。用治胸胁气滞、胀满产痛、食积不化、痰饮内停、胃下垂、子宫脱垂、脱肛等。

药理研究

升高血压;抑尿;抗休克;抑制胃肠运动;对子宫有兴奋或抑制双重作用。

化学成分

本品含挥发油、橙皮苷、枳属苷、松柏苷、柚皮素-7-芸香糖苷、福橘素、甜橙素、新橙皮苷、异欧前胡内酯、茴芹香豆精、柑属环肽Ⅱ、柑属环肽Ⅲ、柑属环肽Ⅳ、忍冬苷、生物碱等成分。

使用禁忌

孕妇慎用。

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