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阅读 22168 次 历史版本 12个 创建者:又是一年芳草绿 (2010/2/19 5:47:27)  最新编辑:5月桂湖 (2011/5/31 0:45:00)
长江
拼音:cháng jiāng
英文:Yangtze River;Changjiang River
  长江(古称江、大江等),位于中国境内,全长6,380公里,发源于中国青海唐古拉山脉各拉丹冬雪山西南侧,是中国、亚洲第一和世界第三大(同时也是长)河流,其长度仅次于尼罗河亚马逊河,超过地球半径。长江干流流经青海西藏四川云南重庆湖北湖南江西安徽江苏上海11个省、自治区、直辖市,于崇明岛以东注入东海
长江水系示意图(点击放大)

  长江干流自西而东横贯中国中部。数百条支流辐辏南北,延伸至贵州甘肃陕西河南广西广东浙江福建8个省、自治区的部分地区。长江流域面积达180万平方公里,约占中国陆地总面积的1/5。淮河大部分水量也通过大运河汇入长江。

  长江是中国水量最丰富的河流,水资源总量9616亿立方米,约占全国河流径流总量的36%,为黄河的20倍。与长江流域所处纬度带相似的南美洲巴拉那—拉普拉塔河和北美洲密西西比河,流域面积虽然都超过长江,水量却远比长江少,前者约为长江的70%,后者约为长江的60%。

长江源头


  长江源流主要有沱沱河当曲楚玛尔河三支,其中沱沱河为长江正源。沱沱河全长358公里,发源于唐古拉山脉主峰,海拔6621米的各拉丹冬雪山西南侧。穿过雪山与谷地,出唐古拉山区后北流,切开祖尔肯乌拉山较低的山岗,至葫芦湖附近再往东流,于囊极巴陇附近接纳右岸支流当曲后,之后便是通天河。通天河自当曲口至青海省玉树县巴塘河口,长813公里。
青海唐古拉山长江源头的冰川

  《禹贡》中提到:“岷山导江,东别为沱。”后人自此以为岷山为长江源头。自汉代一直到唐宋乃至明代,人们普遍认为岷江为长江源头。《汉书·地理志》曾对金沙江描述更进一步,明确指出其是长江一条支流。北魏郦道元在《水经注》中对长江上游的许多河流都进行了详细描述,尤其是金沙江。此后的著作中对金沙江上游不断推远。明代徐霞客对金沙江和岷江实地考察后写下著名的《江源考》,在文中对岷江源头说提出了明确质疑。最后他自己做出判断:“推江源者,必当以金沙江为首。”清代康熙年间绘制的《康熙内府舆图》绘出了通天河和木鲁乌苏河,并指出木鲁乌苏河为通天河最远的一源。乾隆年间齐召南的《水道提纲》中进一步指出通天河即为金沙江上源。同时文中较为全面的描述了尕尔曲、沱沱河、当曲、冬曲和楚玛尔河。长江最上源河流情况基本清楚,但没有进一步指明到底哪一条为主源。

 
数亿吨沿岸泥沙被水冲走,古森林急剧减少;长江里的白鳍豚、中华鲟、刀鱼等可能灭绝;长江生命力在消失……专家们呐喊:如果再不及时保护长江,十年内长江就可能变成第二条黄河!
 民国年间,有人对江源进行考察,其结果见于1946年版的《中国地理概论》,书中写道:“上游青海境内有南北两源,南源曰木鲁乌苏,北源曰楚玛尔。”1976年夏中国江源考察队得出了:“长江三源说:沱沱河虽与当曲长度相当,但沱沱河流向顺直,位置居中,为正源,当曲水流量和流域面积均远大于沱沱河,可称南源,楚玛尔河横贯江源地区北部,流域面积较大,可称北源。”1986年长江科学考察漂流探险队对江源进行了一次考察,主张当曲应为正源。经过几次考察,长江出现了“一源”、“两源”、“三源”诸说。

  2008年9月6日,由青海省政府组织,国家测绘局指导,武汉大学测绘学院技术支持,青海省测绘局负责实施的“三江源头科学考察”项目启动,科考队队长为青海测绘局副局长唐千里,首席科学家是中科院遥感应用所的研究员刘少创,两院院士孙枢陈俊勇加盟。此次大规模科学考察活动,历经41天,行程7300多公里。本次科考采用的确定河源的标准与方法是:“按照国际上河流正源确定的三个标准,即‘河源唯长’、‘流量唯大’、‘与主流方向一致’的标准,同时考虑流域面积,河流发育期、历史习惯”。根据这次科考,当曲且曲源头应为长江源头。这次科考以当曲与沱沱河的交汇处囊极巴陇为起算点,当曲最长的源头——且曲长度为360.34千米,比沱沱河最长的支流尕恰迪如冰川末端的长度348.63千米长11.71千米,比沱沱河支流姜古迪如冰川末端的长度343.72千米长16.62千米。同时,当曲的流量和流域面积均大于沱沱河,历史上人类在长江源区的活动也以当曲年代为久,历史记录为多。因此,当曲的且曲源头应为长江源头。且曲发源于青藏高原唐古拉山脉东段北支5054米无名台地东北处,行政隶属为青海省玉树藏族自治州杂多结多乡

上游段


 
通天河
 长江自江源各拉丹冬峰(海拔6621m)西南侧的姜根迪如南支冰川开始,冰川融水与尕恰迪如岗雪山东南一交融水相会合,称纳钦曲。往北穿过古冰川槽谷,出唐古拉山区与切苏美曲汇合后,称沱沱河。河谷开阔,汊流发育呈辫状,北流至祖尔肯乌拉山区,折转东流,旁蚀发展,宽浅多汊,变化不定,为典洲的宽谷游荡型河流。至囊极巴陇附近,当曲从右岸汇人后,始称通天河

  通天河向东南流河床逐渐束窄,两岸山岭相对高差可达500m左右,河谷呈宽“V”字形。登艾龙曲口以下入峡谷区,河槽归一,水深增加。至青海直门达,长江干流沱沱河和通大河全长1180km。

  江源西部地区,人迹罕至,有“无人区”之称。东部人口稍多,居民主要为藏族,从事畜牧业玉树附近始有农业林业

  直门达以下称金沙江,南流至云南丽江石鼓,为金沙江上段,长958km,平均比降千分之1.76,区间流域面积为7.6×104平方米。本段为典型的深谷河段,相对高差可达2500km以上,除局部河段为宽谷外,大部分为峡谷。两岸人烟稀少,经济落后,矿产资源有云母石棉等,大部分未开发。森林主要分布在玉树以下。水能理论蕴藏量达1306×104kw,由于地势险峻,交通不便,高原气候恶劣,尚未开发利用。

  石鼓至四川宜宾为金沙江下段,横跨川滇两省间,全长1326km,落差1570m,平均比降千分之1.2‰,区间流域面积26.8×104平方公里。
金沙江峡谷

  南流的金沙江过石鼓后急转弯流向东北,形成“长江第一弯”,然后穿过举世闻名的虎跳峡大峡谷,南北两岸为海拔50000余m的玉龙雪山哈巴雪山。峰谷高差达3000余m。峡谷全长17km,落差210m,平均比降1.24%,是金沙江落差最集中的河段。水落河口以下,又复南流至金沙街再折转向东,两岸山岭稍低,河谷有所展宽,但峰谷之间高差仍达1000m左右。

  石鼓至宜宾河段是我国第一大水电基地,水量丰沛,多年平均水量1455×108m3,约占宜昌站的l/3,加上落差大,水能资源丰富,水能理论蕴藏量4231×104kw,约占长江于流蕴藏量的46%。支流雅砻江上的二滩水电站,装机容量330×104kw,是全国在建已发电的最大水电站。

  长江自宜宾至宜昌河段通称川江,流经四川湖北两省,全长1040㎞,平均比降约0.2‰,区间流域面积约50×104平方㎞。有岷江沱江嘉陵江乌江四大支流汇入。

  奉节至宜昌200余㎞河段,为峰峦叠障、雄伟壮丽的长江三峡,举世瞩目的三峡水利枢纽兴建在西陵峡中。

中游段


  湖北宜昌江西湖口为长江中游段,长955㎞。长江自宜昌以下,即进人长江中下游平原,河床坡降小,水流平缓,沿江两岸均筑有堤防,并有众多大小湖泊与河网。

  
荆江大堤
湖北枝城湖南城陵矾河段称荆江。其中枝城至藕池口为上荆江,长约175㎞,属一般性弯曲型河道,洲滩汊河发育;藕池口至城陵矾为下荆江,长约162㎞,属典型的蜿蜒型河道,素有“九曲回肠”之称。荆江以北为地势低平的江汉平原,汛期全靠平均高10余m的荆江大堤抵御长江洪水;荆江南岸有松滋太平藕池调弦(已堵塞)4口分长江水入洞庭湖,水道繁杂,长期以来,又受长江从上游挟带来的泥沙沉积影响,河湖淤浅,荆江两岸地势“南高北低”,婉蜒的荆江河床泄洪不畅,防洪形势非常严峻,故有“万里长江,险在荆江”之说。城陵矾以下至湖口,河道分汊频繁,主流摆动,航槽变迁,给航行带来不便。
洞庭湖是中国的第二大淡水湖,跨湖南湖北两省,它北连长江,南接湘、资、沅、酆四水,号称“八百里洞庭”

  长江中游段大支流较多,南岸有清江洞庭湖水系的湘江资水沅江澧水鄱阳湖水系的赣江抚河信江饶河修水;北岸有汉江

  长江中游气候温和,土壤肥沃,光热资源充足,盛产水稻棉花、油料、茶叶、水果等,是我国重要的农业生产基地。鄱阳湖、洞庭湖等大小湖泊水产丰富。矿产资源以石膏等著名。水资源水力资源也较丰富,在支流上已建成沅江五强溪、清江隔河岩、汉江丹江口、湘江东江、赣江万安等大型水利枢纽。

  长江中游航运条件优越,内河航运发达,武汉以下可通行5000t级船舶,临湘以下可通行3000t级船舶。汉江、湘江、赣江拥有较重要的支流航道。 

下游段


  湖口以下至长江口为下游段。下游段江阔水深,多洲滩,河道分汊呈藕节状。江阴以下河段,河宽从1.4㎞至徐六泾宽5.7㎞,再
崇明岛及长江入海口示意图
向东南至崇明岛以东的长江口宽达90㎞,呈喇叭形。安徽大通以下600㎞受潮汐影响,是坍岸最严重的河段。长江每年挟带4.8×108t泥沙至河口,因流速平缓和受海潮顶托影响而沉积,形成沙洲、沙坝,使河日淤浅成“拦门沙”,河道分汊,两岸形成沙嘴,河口三角洲陆地向大海伸展。长江口河道在径流、海潮、泥沙和地转偏向力诸多因素的影响下,及由此引起局部河床的冲淤变化,均会导致河道经常演变,长江主汛道南北往复摆动,给海运事业带来不利影响。长江口河道被崇明岛分隔为南支和北支,南支又被长兴岛横沙岛分隔为南港和北港,南港再被九段沙分隔成南槽和北槽。目前,长江口主汛已由原来的南支——南港——南槽演变为南支——南港——北槽。

  长江下游段的主要支流有:南岸的青戈江水阳江秦淮河黄浦江;北岸的巢湖水系、滁河淮河人江水道(通过苏北里运河)。

  长江下游地区是长江流域和全国的精华地区,农业集约化程度高,工业基础雄厚,科技文化先进,智力资源丰富,城镇化程度高,水陆交通发达。上海中国最大的工业城市和外贸港口,将建成中国最大的国际经济金融贸易中心。上海港口吞吐量已达1×108t以上。

  长江下游两岸平原湖泊洼地广阔,高程一般低于洪水位4~10m,靠堤防保护。每当汛期暴雨积水,长江又承接上、中游洪水和下游支流洪水,水位居高不下,易造成外洪内涝。沿海一带若遇台风暴雨潮汐同时袭击,灾害更为严重。因此,防洪排涝工程建设是下游地区人民生产生活的重要保障。

流域分界


 
长江
长江
 长江流域的界线,北以巴颜喀拉山西倾山岷山秦岭伏牛山桐柏山大别山淮阳丘陵等与黄河淮河流域为界;南以横断山脉云岭鸡足山、滇中东西向山岭、乌蒙山苗岭南岭等与澜沧江元江红河)和珠江流域为界;东南以武夷山黄山天目山等与闽浙水系为界;长江源头地区的北部以昆仑山柴达木盆地内陆水系为界,西部以可可西里山乌兰乌拉山祖尔肯乌拉山尕恰迪如岗雪山群与藏北羌塘内陆水系为界,南部以唐古拉山怒江流域为界;长江三角洲北部,地形平坦,水网密布,与淮河流域间的分界很难划分,通常以通扬运河为界,其南部沿杭嘉湖平原南侧丘陵与钱塘江流域分界。

  上述分界勾绘出的长江流域轮廓,很像一个两端较窄、中部宽阔的大菱角。整个流域位于东经90度33’~122度25’、北纬24度30’~35度45’之间,从西到东直线距离在3000㎞以上,南北宽度除江源和长江三角洲地区外,一般均达1000㎞左右。

  长江与相邻流域的分水界线,大部分比较明显、顺直,但有一些地段的山岭,时断时续,沟谷交错;有些是地势坦阔、山岭低平的高原;有些是山岭走向与河流平行或斜交——这些地区的分水界线都不太明显。

  在沟谷交错、山川平行或斜交的地段,分水岭地势低矮,形成垭口,两侧河谷靠近,自古以来,人们就利用这些天然通道,发展陆路交通,开凿人工运河,使长江与相邻流域相沟通。这种地形也为今后跨流域引水和建设现代运河创造了有利条件。

长江流域自然景观


  在中国综合自然区划中,长江流域分属华中区、西南区和青藏区。沿四川盆地西部边缘,北至秦岭,南接云贵两省交界的连线以东,包括中国大陆地势第二级阶梯的四川盆地、贵州高原、陕南、江南丘陵和第三级阶梯的长江中下游平原属华中区;自第二级阶梯四川西昌九龙木里云南中甸、奔于栏连线以南,包括云南北部和四川凉山彝族自治州为西南区;西南区以北,包括四川甘孜藏族自治州阿坝藏族羌族自治州青海玉树藏族自治州通天河流域,直至江源地区,属中国大陆地势第一级阶梯——青藏区。
  

华中区


  处在中国南方往北方的过渡地带,属亚热带季风气候。1月平均气温在0℃以上,河流土壤基本不冻结,冬夏季风交替,年降水量约1000㎜,四季分明。冬季四川盆地、贵州高原尤其温暖湿润;东部长江中下游地区,北无高山阻隔,受寒潮南下影响,气温较同纬度偏低。春季相对多雨。夏季高温高湿,武汉重庆南京为著名的“三大火炉”,利于喜温的水稻等作物生长,梅雨现象突出,暴雨集中,易产生洪涝。秋季秋高气爽,但常有秋旱发生。本区地貌类型多种多样,西有肥沃的“紫色盆地”四川和喀斯特地形广泛发育的贵州高原;南有南岭和山清水秀的江南丘陵;北有秦岭大别山桐柏山诸山组成的淮阳山地;中有湖泊众多、河网交织、阡陌纵横的“鱼米之乡”长江中下游平原。区内名山大川汇聚,名胜古迹广布,旅游资源丰富。湿润的亚热带常绿阔叶林为本区主要景观,有青冈、拷、樟、榕、冬青等属树种和马尾松林、竹林等,一年四季,水绿山青。土壤大部为红壤、黄壤和山地黄棕壤。平原河谷与盆地广泛分布着经过长期耕种、灌水、熟化而形成的水稻土。北部大别山、桐柏山一带为常绿阔叶与落叶阔叶混交林,土壤为黄棕壤。成都平原江汉平原洞庭湖鄱阳湖太湖一带湖滨平原均为重要的商品粮、棉、油基地;四川盆地和江南、江北丘陵区梯田层叠,塘堰、水库星罗棋布。北部小麦油菜水稻一年两熟;南部水稻一年两熟,冬小麦或油菜、双季稻也可一年三熟。区内盛产棉、麻、茶、桑、蚕、毛竹、柑桔、油菜、油桐等经济作物经济林,又是中国淡水鱼和各类水产的主要产地。
  

西南区


  川滇两省接壤的金沙江两岸是海拔2000m左右的滇中高原。红色岩系风化侵蚀后形成平缓的丘陵,受新构造运动影响,断裂下陷的一系列盆地与丘陵相间分布,构成高原地貌一大特色。金沙江干流的支流下游,往往下切剧烈,峡谷深邃,江水汹涌。本区气候夏半年为西南季风控制,冬半年受热带大陆气团影响,一年干湿两季分明。冬短,无夏,春秋长,“四季如春”。由于降水量的80%~90%集中在5~10月,冬春干旱突出,背风的河谷地带尤甚。植被亚热带干性常绿阔叶林。土壤为红壤。农作物主要有水稻、小麦、玉米茶叶烤烟等。本区西部为著名的横断山脉区,地形起伏大,岭谷之间高差悬殊,上下气候迥然不同,纬度地带性规律被复杂的地形所打破,自然景观呈垂直变化,俗称:“一山有四季,十里不同天”。从干热的谷底到高山顶部,植被、土壤依次可为:稀树草丛——褐红壤;常绿阔叶林——红壤;针阀混交林、针叶林——山地棕壤;高山灌丛草甸——高山草甸土;更高的山上还会出现垫状植被——寒漠土;雪线以上为冰川积雪带。河谷两岸水稻可一年三熟,并能种植一些热带经济作物,山上适宜农林牧多种经营。
 

青藏区


  长江流域江源部分在“世界屋脊”——青藏高原的中部和东部,地势高亢,地面海拔达5000m左右,向东缓缓倾斜,至四川阿坝附近降至海拔3200m左右。高原开阔,大部分地表起伏和缓,切割轻微,山岭浑圆呈丘岗状,相对高度仅数百米。山岭之间镶嵌着宽谷和盆地,河流坡降小,水流散乱,时分时合,形成辫状水系。谷坡、河滩牧草茂盛,排水不畅处,沼泽湿地广布。高原南部和东南边缘,因河流强烈下切,形成高山深峡或中山峡谷,切割破碎。高原上空气稀薄,大气干洁,太阳辐射强烈,气温低,年较差小,日较差大,降水较少,楚玛尔河上游年降水量仅200mm左右,向东南逐渐递增,至马尔康一带可达800mm。夏半年受西南季风影响,东南边缘受东南季风尾闾影响,降水均集中夏季。江源一带夏季降水仍以冰雪为主,海拔5800m以上终年积雪,发育现代冰川。东部贡嘎山东坡海拔4900m以上终年积雪,有现代冰川。昆仑山脉唐古拉山脉之间宽达550km范围内,分布着深厚的永久冻土,是世界上中低纬度海拔最高、面积最广的冻土区,寒冻风化和融冻作用十分普遍。高原植被稀疏,多沙砾或基岩裸露,属高寒荒漠

  高寒草原或草甸草原景观,草原辽阔,是长江流域最广阔的牧业区。青海玉树藏族自治州西部江源一带,地势高寒,“四季如冬”,无农业,为纯牧业区,牧放的藏羊、牦牛可达海拔5500m,是世界放牧最高的地区,并有藏羚藏原羚(黄羊)、野驴野牦牛旱獭黑颈鹤白唇鹿等特有及稀有野生动物分布。


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